Educational Insight on Important Water Issues
Articles, Reports and Other
June 15, 2020
2020 WOTUS Rule
The United States has had a tumultuous relationship with one of its most precious resources — water. By the 1970s, aggressive development in the United States necessitated the implementation of regulatory measures to protect the environment. Since then, the debate has focused not on whether the environment should be protected, but how comprehensively that regulatory protection should extend. Nowhere has this debate been more evident than with the federal Clean Water Act (CWA) and the definition of “waters of the United States” (WOTUS).
October 15, 2019
Ambos Nogales Effluent
Perennial flows in the United States of America (US) portion of the Santa Cruz River downstream from the Nogales International Wastewater Treatment Plant (NIWTP) depend on its effluent discharges. The US portion is subject to high variability in flows, due to both wastewater overflow events resulting from heavy rainfall, and decreases in flow resulting from treatment and discharge of Mexican wastewater by Mexico. The diversion of wastewater generated from NIWTP has the potential to have social, institutional, hydrological, and ecological effects to the Ambos Nogales region (Nogales, Arizona...
July 17, 2019
1986 Water Harvesting Primer Still Relevant Today
Back in the 1980s, the University of Arizona operated a research facility near Oracle, AZ, investigating water harvesting and runoff farming. One of the products of their research was a Primer on Water Harvesting and Runoff Farming written by Gerald Matlock and Gordon Dutt. The authors were predicting the widespread adoption of water harvesting for agriculture as early as 1965, a prediction that has yet to be realized. The primer contains calculations of water yields under various conditions and the relation to yields of various crops. It also contains a guide to design and...
July 01, 2019
Tucson Leads the Way
In collaboration with city, county, and academic institutions can open new opportunities to secure new water resources. Green infrastructure is critical to reducing the demand on potable supplies, explain authors Susanna Eden at the University of Arizona Water Resources Research Center and at the Pima County Regional Flood Control District. Water harvesting has been used in the Tucson, Arizona region since prehistoric times and is now in resurgence. Within the past 30 years, Tucson has become a leader in desert rainwater and stormwater capture to build resilience and address growing concerns...
January 24, 2019
Groundwater governance in the United States: A mosaic of approaches
Groundwater is an important water supply for meeting municipal, industrial, and agricultural water demands and for supporting riparian and other ecological systems in the United States (U.S.). Effective groundwater governance is therefore crucial to the wise use of this largely non-renewable resource (recharge rates are slower than extraction rates). While minimum, federally-established drinking-water quality and water-discharge regulations do exist, the framework of the laws and regulations governing groundwater use in this country is highly decentralized. Each state determines its own...
December 06, 2018
Influence of grey water on physical and mechanical properties of mortar and concrete mixes
This project aims to evaluate the potential of reused grey water in concrete and mortar in order to preserve fresh water for drinking purposes. Using both Treated Grey Water and Raw Grey Water (TGW and RGW, respectively) led to a significant increase in the initial setting time and a decrease in the concrete slump value. In addition, there was no effect on mortar soundness properties. The mortar and concrete compressive strength results obtained at 7 days moist curing time showed a significant increase. Mortar and concrete mixes using TGW cast at...
May 31, 2017
Desert Flows Methodology Guidebook
Successful implementation of environmental flow projects depends on land and water managers having clear objectives and access to reliable data. This guidebook provides information on a variety of methods that can be utilized under different fiscal or temporal constraints to determine and implement appropriate environmental flow targets. Based on evidence from cases focused in the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico, steps are suggested to help ensure maintenance of flows under uncertain future natural and socio-economic conditions. The importance of education and engagement to...
September 12, 2016
Desert Flows Assessment
In the past decade there has been increased interest in providing water to meet the needs of riparian and aquatic ecosystems in the western United States and policymakers are using their knowledge of environmental flow needs to advocate for both political and scientific changes. However, there are significant challenges associated with including environmental flows in water management and planning. First, water rights for environmental flows are not universal, and in many cases legal tools used to incorporate the environment into water management and planning only require new users to...
November 14, 2012
Arizona Environmental Water Needs Methodology Guidebook
Arizona Environmental Water Needs (AzEWN) Methodology Guidebook: Determining the best methods or quantifying environmental flow needs depends on what is to be studied as well as how the information will be used. This guidebook will provide a description of the methodologies used in Arizona to define the environment’s need for water. Depending on the geographic context, the time and effort available, and whether the goal is restoration or maintenance of an ecosystem, some methods will be more appropriate for a given application than others. The resulting flows prescribed by each method...
October 01, 2012
AZ Know Your Water
A consumer's guide to water sources in Arizona, quality regulations, and home water treatment options, funded through the TRIF Water Sustainability Program grants program has been reprinted due to popular demand and is now available. This convenient spiral bound volume covers water use and water sources in Arizona, minerals and contaminants in water, water quality regulations and standards, and home water treatment options. Each option is fully described, including operation and maintenance tips. Copies of the booklet are available at the University of Arizona, Water Resources Research...
March 29, 2011
AzEWN Assessment and Methodology Guidebook Brochure
AzEWN Assessment and Methodology Guidebook Brochure: This document is a four-page color brochure highlighting the contents of the Arizona Environmental Water Needs Assessment Report and Methodology Guidebook. Protecting Arizona’s natural environment, water supply, and open spaces is a high priority for Arizona citizens. The Arizona Environmental Water Needs Assessment systematically assembled technical information about the environment’s water needs that can be used in water planning and policymaking statewide. AzEWNA documents and inventory data are intended to improve...
August 01, 2009
Arizona Well Owners' Guide to Water Supply
This booklet is intended for Arizona residents who depend on private wells for their water needs. Well owners who want to become familiar with Arizona's groundwater sources, water quality and water testing options, and well maintenance issues should read this booklet. Topics include: An overview of the state's water resources and how Arizona's major cities use these resources. A description of Arizona's geology and how location affects the quantity and quality of aquifer water resources in our state. Common contaminant found in Arizona's...